Prostate Cancer-Surgical in India
Prostate cancer is uncontrolled growth of cells in prostate, it is detected commonly by Blood test for PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen ), DRE – digital rectal examination, Biopsy.
Here we list most frequently asked information about Prostate Cancer Surgery. In case you have any further questions or would like any other assistance, feel free to write to us.
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More About Prostate Cancer Surgery
Types of Prostate Cancer
Localized cancer –contained within the prostate
Locally advanced cancer
Recurrent cancer comes back after previous treatment
Metastatic cancer – when the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
Risk Factor for Prostate Cancer
Age – the chances of having prostate cancer increase with advancing age
Ethnicity- Black men more likely to get prostate cancer
Family history – having a first degree relative with prostate cancer increases the risk.
Diet , obesity are also important contributing factors
Signs and Symptoms of Prostate Cancer
Clinically the patient presents with symptoms of
Urination troubles like ,frequent urging , difficulty in commencing urination , blood in urine
Excess level of PSA (protein specific antigen ) in blood
Bone fractures seen in metastatic cases of cancer prostate
There may be urinary /fecal incontinence in advanced cases
Tests and Diagnosis for Prostate Cancer
Medical health history of the patient taken into account
Prostate cancer is commonly detected by PSA (prostate specific antigen ) test of blood
DRE – Digital Rectal Examination and Trans rectal ultrasound also performed which aid diagnosis
Biopsy is usually performed to confirm diagnosis
To determine the stage of cancer , imaging studies like bone CT scan or MRI scan
Treatment of Prostate Cancer
- Depends on the spread of cancer in the prostate gland
- In early stages the aim of treatment is cure
- In advanced stages the aim is to expand life and relieve symptoms
- Health and age of patient
Active surveillance – screening at regular intervals to closely monitor the state of patients prostate, without immediate treatment .
Surgery – the main benefit of surgery is the prostate with the cancer is removed .
Prostatectomy usually performed for:
Clinically Localized cancer
If age young and fast growing tumor
Here the surgeon removes the entire prostate gland and may remove surrounding tissues , lymph nodes and the seminal vesicles .
Taking out lymph node reduces the risk of cancer recurrence .
It may be performed laparoscopic ally or by open approach .
Monitoring in recovery
Drain put for excess fluids
Catheter put in
Stocking and pumps to reduce the risk of clot formation
In 7-10 days cystogram performed and catheter removed
Within 2-4 weeks return to normal activities
Medication given to help erection
Risks associated with surgery
Damage to nearby organs
Radiation - This therapy uses high energy beams of X- rays to treat prostate cancer by damaging the cells . It is useful in cases when :
When cancer is low grade and limited locally to the prostate
As treatment of choice along with hormonal therapy for cancer that has grown into surrounding tissue
For cancer that recurs
For metatstatic advanced cancers for palliative relief
Two Main Types of Radiation Therapy
- Brachytherapy – also called seed implantation , herein small radioactive pellets are placed on prostateand they give off their radiation at low dose over several weeks or months .
- External beam radiation also known as EBRT in which beams are focused on prostate from outside the body .
After effects of Radiation:
Bowel problems –diarrhoea , blood in stool
Urinary symptoms – radiation cystitis , urinary incontinence
Hormonal therapy –
Does not cure , it’s a temporary therapy and just slows the cancer growth or used as palliative therapy in metatstatic cases .
It aims to decrease production or block action of testosterone , which leads to destroyed prostate cancer cells and shrunk prostate tumor ,
Hormone therapy can be given alone or combination with other treatment .
Types of hormone therapy
- Orchiectomy : Surgical removal of testicles
Drug therapy : block signal from brain thus lower testosterone , effects may be reversible
- LH-RH Analogue therapy- blocks the production of testosterone .
- Anti androgen therapy -blocks action of testosterone used before LHRH therapy to prevent androgen flare .
After Effects of Hormonal Therapy
- Hot flushes
- Reduced sex drive
- Decreased ability to have erections
- Decresed muscle strength
- Can cause bone thinning
- Can lead to dyslipidaemia
Factors Affecting Cost Of Prostate Cancer Surgery
The cost to the patient depends on a variety of factors like
- The hospital, the patient chooses.
- Room –Standard single room, deluxe room, super deluxe room for the number of nights specified (including nursing fee, meals, room rate, and room service).
- Fee for the team of doctors.
- Standard tests and diagnostic procedures.
- Type of surgery performed
- cost of Radiation /Hormone therapy
- Cost of the follow –up care required after the procedure
Prostate Cancer Treatment: 2.34 Min